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第六章 爱邻人

发表时间:2019/3/24 14:38:01  浏览次数:285  
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VI. LOVE TOWARDS THE NEIGHBOR, OR CHARITY

VI.爱邻人,或仁爱

84. It shall first be shown what the neighbor is, for it is the neighbor who is to be loved, and towards whom charity is to be exercised. For unless it be known what the neighbor is, charity may be exercised in a similar manner, without distinction, towards the evil as well as towards the good, whence charity ceases to be charity: for the evil, from benefactions, do evil to the neighbor, but the good do good.

84. 首先应该解释邻人是什么,因为被爱的是邻人,仁爱施予的对象也是邻人。因为除非知道邻人是什么,否则仁爱可能会无差别地以相似方式对待邪恶的人和良善的人,由此仁爱不再是仁爱:为了邪恶,通过善行对邻人行恶。但是良善是行善。

85. It is a common opinion at this day, that every man is equally the neighbor, and that benefits are to be conferred on everyone who needs assistance; but it is in the interest of Christian prudence to examine well the quality of a man's life, and to exercise charity to him accordingly. The man of the internal church exercises his charity with discrimination, consequently with intelligence; but the man of the external church, because he is not able thus to discern things, does it indiscriminately.

85. 今天,这是一个普遍观念,那就是每个人都同样是邻人,恩惠被给予需要帮助的每个人。但是,为了基督徒的慎重,要彻底检查一个人的生命品质,并相应地实行仁爱。拥有内部教会的人有差别地实行仁爱,因此他有才智相伴。但是拥有外部教会的人,因为他不能这样区分事物,所以是没有差别地实行仁爱。

86. The distinctions of neighbor, which the man of the church ought altogether to know, are according to the good which is with everyone; and because all good proceeds from the Lord, therefore the Lord is the neighbor in the highest sense and in a supereminent degree, and the origin is from Him. Hence it follows that so far as anyone has the Lord with himself, so far he is the neighbor; and because no one receives the Lord, that is, good from Him, in the same manner as another, therefore no one is the neighbor in the same manner as another. For all who are in the heavens, and all the good who are on the earths, differ in good; no two ever received a good that is altogether one and the same; it must be various, that each may subsist by itself. But all these varieties, thus all the distinctions of the neighbor, which are according to the reception of the Lord, that is, according to the reception of good from Him, can never be known by any man, nor indeed by any angel, except in general, thus their genera and species: neither does the Lord require any more of the man of the church, than to live according to what he knows.

86. 教会之人必定应当知道邻人的区别是由每个人的良善决定的。因为一切良善来自主,因此,在最高观念和最卓越程度上,主是邻人,良善的源头是来自祂。由此得出结论,只要任何人有主与他自己同在,此时他是邻人。因为没有一个人接受主即来自祂的良善是与另一个人方式相同,因此没有一个人和另一个人是以相同方式成为邻人。因为天堂里的一切天人和人间的一切好人,在良善上都不同。甚至没有两个接受的良善是完全相同。良善一定是多种多样的,每一种都能靠自己存在。但是,根据对主的接受即对从祂而来的良善的接受而来的所有的这些种类,从而邻人的一切区别,都不能被任何人知道,也确实不能被任何天人知道,除了笼统的,也就是它们的种和类:教会之人和依自己所知去行动的人相比,主对教会之人的要求不会更高。

87. Because good varies with everyone, it therefore follows, that the quality of good determines in what degree and in what proportion anyone is the neighbor. That this is the case is plain from the Lord's parable concerning him that fell among robbers, whom, when half dead, the priest passed by, and also the Levite; but the Samaritan, after he had bound up his wounds, and poured in oil and wine, took him up on his own beast, and led him to an inn, and ordered that care should be taken of him: because he exercised the good of charity, he is called the neighbor (Luke 10:29-37). Hence it may be known that they are the neighbor who are in good: "the oil and wine," which the Samaritan poured into the wounds, also signify good and its truth.

87. 因为良善随每个人的不同而不同,由此可得,良善的性质决定任何人在何种程度和比例上是邻人。根据主说的遇见盗贼的寓言,这个情况显而易见,有一个人落在强盗中,被打的半死,祭司从旁路过,利未人也是;但是撒玛利亚人为他的伤口倒上油和酒,并包扎好,扶他骑上自己的牲口,带到店里去照应他。请店主照料伤者:由于他实行仁慈的良善,他被称为邻人(路加福音1029-37。因此可以知道,他们是有良善的邻人。撒玛利亚人倒在伤口上的“油和酒”,还表示良善和它的真理。

88. It is plain from what has now been said, that in the universal sense, good is the neighbor, because man is the neighbor according to the quality of the good that is with him from the Lord. And because good is the neighbor, so is love, for all good is of love; thus every man is the neighbor according to the quality of the love which he receives from the Lord.

88. 根据现在已说的,显而易见,在普遍意义上,良善是邻人,因为人是邻人依据的是与他一起、从主而来的良善的特性。由于良善是邻人,所以爱也是,因为一切良善是来自爱。因此,根据他从主接受的爱的特性,每个人都是邻人。

89. That love is what causes anyone to be the neighbor, and that everyone is the neighbor according to the quality of his love, appears manifestly from those who are in the love of self. These acknowledge for their neighbor those who love them most, that is, so far as they belong to themselves; these they embrace, they kiss them, they confer benefits on them and call them brothers; yea, because they are evil, they say, that these are the neighbor more than others: they esteem others as the neighbor in proportion as they love them, thus according to the quality and quantity of their love. Such persons derive the origin of neighbor from self, by reason that love constitutes and determines it. But they who do not love themselves more than others, as is the case with all who belong to the kingdom of the Lord, will derive the origin of neighbor from Him whom they ought to love above all things, consequently, from the Lord; and they will esteem everyone as the neighbor according to the quality of his love to Him and from Him. From these things it appears from whence the origin of neighbor is to be drawn by the man of the church; and that everyone is the neighbor according to the good which he possesses from the Lord, thus good itself is the neighbor.

89. 那爱是任何人成为邻人的原因,每个人是邻人根据的是他的爱的性质,通过那些爱自己的人明显可见。这些人承认最爱他们的那些人是邻人,也就是,只要那些人属于他们自己。他们拥抱这些人,亲吻这些人,给予这些人好处,并称其为弟兄。是的,因为他们是邪恶的,他们说,相比其他人,这些人为邻人。他们按照被这些人爱的程度来尊敬这些人为邻人,因此是根据他们的爱的质量和数量。这样的人从自身获得邻人的起源,因为那爱构成并决定它。但是,那些不是爱自己胜过爱他人的人,属于主的国度的一切人的情况是,他们根据最应该爱的祂形成他们关于邻人的起源,因此是根据主而来。根据人对主的爱和从主而来的爱的性质,他们将尊重这样的每个人为邻人。通过这些可知,教会之人应该由此获得邻人的起源。每个人成为邻人取决于他从主得到的良善,因此良善本身是邻人。

90. That this is the case, the Lord also teaches in Matthew:

For He said to those who were in good that they had given Him to eat, that they had given Him to drink, that they had gathered Him, had clothed Him, had visited Him, and had come to Him in prison; and afterwards that, so far as they had done it to one of the least of their brethren, they had done it unto Him (25:34-40).

In these six kinds of good, understood in the spiritual sense, are comprehended all the genera of the neighbor. Hence, likewise, it is evident, that when good is loved the Lord is loved, for it is the Lord from whom good is, who is in good, and who is good itself.

90.主在《马太福音》中也教导了这种情况:

    主对那些良善的人说,他们给他吃的,他们给他喝的,他们留他住,给他衣穿,病的时候看顾他,在监里的时候看他。然后说,只要他们作在这弟兄中最小的一个身上,就是作在主的身上(2534-40)。

   在灵意理解上,这六种类型的良善被理解为邻人的一切种类。因此,同样,很明显,当良善被爱的时候,主也被爱,因为良善来自主,主在良善中,祂是良善本身。

91. But the neighbor is not only man singly, but also man collectively, as a less or greater society, our country, the church, the Lord's kingdom, and, above all, the Lord Himself; these are the neighbor to whom good is to be done from love. These are also the ascending degrees of neighbor, for a society of many is neighbor in a higher degree than a single man is; in a still higher degree is our country; in a still higher degree is the church; and in a still higher degree is the Lord's kingdom; but in the highest degree is the Lord. These ascending degrees are like the steps of a ladder, at the top of which is the Lord.

91. 但是邻人不仅是个别的人,而且是全体的人,像较小或较大的社会,我们的国家,教会,主的国度,尤其是主祂本身。这些都是邻人。爱的良善要施予的是这些。这些也是等级递增的邻人,因为一个由很多人组成的社会和一个人相比位于较高等级。我们的国家是较高等级。教会是较高等级,主的国度是较高的等级。但是等级最高的是主。这些上升的等级就像是楼梯的阶梯,位于顶端的是主。

92. A society is the neighbor more than a single man, because it consists of many. Charity is to be exercised towards it in a like manner as towards a man singly, namely, according to the quality of the good that is with it; thus in a manner totally different towards a society of the upright, than towards a society of those not upright. The society is loved when its good is regarded from the love of good.

92. 一个社会是比单独的人等级更高的邻人,因为它由很多人组成。对它实行仁爱与对单独的人实行仁爱的方式相同,即根据与它一起的良善的性质。因此对待一个正直的社会和一个不正直的社会的方式是完全不同的。当一个社会的良善被认为是来自爱的良善,这个社会是被爱着的。

93. Our country is the neighbor more than a society, because it is like a parent; for a man is born therein, and it nourishes and protects him from injuries. Good is to be done to our country from love according to its necessities, which principally regard its sustenance, and the civil and spiritual life of those therein. He who loves his country, and does good to it from good will, in the other life loves the Lord's kingdom, for there the Lord's kingdom is his country, and he who loves the Lord's kingdom loves the Lord, because the Lord is the all in all things of His kingdom.

93. 我们的国家是比一个社会等级更高的邻人,因为它就像是父亲(母亲)。因为一个人生于那里,它养育和保护他免于伤害。根据国家的必需,通过爱,善行实行于我们的国家,主要是国家的生计,以及里面的那些公民生活和灵性生活。爱他的国家的人,通过良善的意愿做良善的事,在来世,他爱主的国度,因为,在那里,主的国度是他的国家,爱主的国度的人爱主,因为主在祂国度的所有事物中是一切。

94. The church is the neighbor more than our country, for he who has regard for the church, has regard for the souls and eternal life of the men who are in his country; wherefore he who provides for the church from love, loves the neighbor in a higher degree, for he wishes and wills heaven and happiness of life to eternity to others.

94. 教会是比我们的国家等级更高的邻人,因为关心教会的人关心他的国家里的人的灵魂和永生。因此用爱供养教会的人在更高等级上爱邻人,因为他希望和愿意其他人进入天堂并且有永恒的幸福生活。

95. The Lord's kingdom is the neighbor in a still higher degree, for the Lord's kingdom consists of all who are in good, both those on the earths, and those in the heavens; thus the Lord's kingdom is good with all its quality in the complex: when this is loved, the individuals are loved who are in good.

95. 主的国度是较高等级的邻人,因为主的国度由一切良善的人构成,包括地球上的那些人和天堂里的那些天人。因此,主的国度在它的一切性质上是良善:当主的国度被爱,良善的个人也被爱。

96. These are the degrees of neighbor, and love ascends, with those who are in love towards their neighbor, according to these degrees. But these degrees are degrees in successive order, in which what is prior or superior is to be preferred to what is posterior or inferior; and because the Lord is in the highest degree, and He is to be regarded in each degree as the end to which it tends, consequently He is to be loved above all persons and things. From these things it may now appear, how love to the Lord conjoins itself with love towards the neighbor.

96. 这些是邻人的等级,依据这些等级,爱邻人的那些人的爱会递增。但是这些等级是连续系列的等级,在先的和上等的与较后的和下等的相比是首选的。因为主是最高等级,祂被认为是每个等级趋向的目标,因此相比一切人和事物,祂更应被爱。通过这些事物,现在可以看到,爱主是如何使它自己与爱邻人相连。

97. It is a common saying, that everyone is his own neighbor; that is, that everyone should first consider himself; but the doctrine of charity teaches how this is to be understood. Everyone should provide for himself the necessaries of life, such as food, raiment, habitation, and many other things which the state of civil life, in which he is, necessarily requires, and this not only for himself, but also for his own, and not only for the present time, but also for the future; for unless a man procures for himself the necessaries of life, he cannot be in a state to exercise charity, for he is in want of all things.

97. 有一句俗语,每个人都是他自己的邻人。也就是,每个人应该首先考虑他自己。但是仁爱的教义教导如何理解这。每个人应该为他自己提供生活必需品,比如食物、衣服、住所和他所在的平民生活的很多其它事物,必要地需求,这不仅是为他自己,也为属于他的人,不仅为今日,也为未来。除非一个人为他自己获取生活必需品,他不能处于实行仁爱的状态,因为他需要一切事物。 

98. But how every one ought to be his own neighbor may appear from this comparison. Everyone ought to provide food and raiment for his body; this must be the first object, but it should be done to the end that he may have a sound mind in a sound body. And everyone ought to provide food for his mind, namely, such things as are of intelligence and wisdom; to the end that it may thence be in a state to serve his fellow-citizens, human society, his country, and the church, thus the Lord. He who does this provides for his own good to eternity. Hence it is evident that the first is where the end is on account of which we should act, for all other things look to this. The case is like that of a man who builds a house: he first lays the foundation; but the foundation is for the house, and the house is for habitation. He who believes that he is his own neighbor in the first place, is like him who regards the foundation as the end, not the house and habitation; when yet the habitation is the very first and ultimate end, and the house with the foundation is only a means to the end.

98. 通过这个比较可以看到,每个人应该如何成为他自己的邻人。每个人应该为他的身体提供食物和衣服。这必须是第一目标,但是完成它是为了有一个健全的心灵和身体。每个人应该为他的心灵提供食物,即像是与才智和智慧有关的这类事物。这是为了能由此处于为他的同胞、人类社会、他的国家和教会提供服务的状态,进而为主服务的状态。这样做的人为他自己提供了进入永生的良善。因此很明显,首要的是目标在哪里,它是我们应该行动的原因,因为一切其它事物都指望它。这种情况就像一个人建造房子:他首先奠定地基。但是地基是为了房子,房子是为了居住。相信他是他自己的邻人的人,最初,他就像是视地基为目标的人,而不是视房子和居住为目标。然而,居住才是真正的首位和最终目标,带有地基的房子只是实现目标的方式。

99. The end declares how everyone should be his own neighbor, and provide for himself first. If the end be to grow richer than others only for the sake of riches, or for the sake of pleasure, or for the sake of eminence, and the like, it is an evil end, and that man does not love the neighbor, but himself; but if the end be to procure himself riches, that he may be in a state of providing for his fellow-citizens, human society, his country, and the church, in like manner if he procures for himself offices for the same end, he loves the neighbor. The end itself, for the sake of which he acts, constitutes the man; for the end is his love, for everyone has for a first and ultimate end, that which he loves above all things.

99. 这个目标解释了每个人应该如何成为他自己的邻人,首先为他自己做准备。如果只为财富、快乐或显赫等等的目标相比其它目标变得更丰富,这是一个邪恶的目标,那人不爱邻人,只爱他自己。但是如果目标是使自己富裕,然后他处于可供养他的公民同胞、人类社会、他的国家和教会的状态,同样地,如果他为他自己获取职位是有相同的目标,他爱邻人。为了他的行动的目标本身构成了人。因为目标是他的爱,因为每个人都有一个首要和最终目标,他爱它胜过一切。

What has hitherto been said is concerning the neighbor. Love towards him, or Charity, shall now be treated of.

    到目前为止,已经说了很多关于邻人的内容。现在将谈论爱他人或仁爱。

100. It is believed by many, that love towards the neighbor consists in giving to the poor, in assisting the indigent, and in doing good to everyone; but charity consists in acting prudently, and to the end that good may result. He who assists a poor or indigent evil doer does evil to the neighbor through him, for through the assistance which he renders, he confirms him in evil, and supplies him with the means of doing evil to others. It is otherwise with him who gives support to the good.

100. 很多人相信,爱邻人在于施舍穷人,帮助贫困的人,向每个人行善。但是仁爱在于行为谨慎,从而能达到良善的目的。帮助可怜或贫困的行恶者的人是通过他对邻人行恶,因为通过他提供的帮助,巩固了此人的邪恶,并为此人提供了向别人行恶的途径。为良善之人提供帮助的人的情况相反。

101. But charity extends itself much more widely than to the poor and indigent; for charity consists in doing what is right in every work, and our duty in every office. If a judge does justice for the sake of justice, he exercises charity; if he punishes the guilty and absolves the innocent, he exercises charity, for thus he consults the welfare of his fellow-citizens and of his country. The priest who teaches the truth, and leads to good, for the sake of truth and good, exercises charity. But he who does such things for the sake of self and the world, does not exercise charity, because he does not love the neighbor, but himself.

101. 但是仁爱延伸的范围比穷人和贫困者的范围更广泛。因为仁爱在于在每项工作和每个职位的职务中做正确的事。如果一个法官为了公正而公正,他在实行仁爱。如果他惩罚罪人、释放无罪者,他在实行仁爱,因为他顾及他的同胞和国家的利益。牧师为了真理和良善的目的教导真理和引人向善,他在实行仁爱。但是做这些事是为了自己和世界的人,他不是在实行仁爱,因为他不爱邻人,只爱他自己。

102. The case is the same in all other instances, whether a man be in any office or not; as with children towards parents, and with parents towards children; with servants towards masters, and with masters towards servants; with subjects towards the king, and with a king towards subjects: whoever of these does his duty from a principle of duty, and what is just from a principle of justice, exercises charity.

102. 在所有其它例子中,情况也是一样,无论一个人有无某种职位。比如孩子对待父母,父母对待孩子;仆人对待主人,主人对待仆人;国民对待国王,国王对待国民:这些人中的任何人为了责任的原则而执行责任,并且正好是依据公正的原则,他就在实行仁爱。

103. The reason why such things belong to love towards the neighbor, or charity, is because, as was said above, every man is the neighbor, but in a different manner. A less and greater society is more the neighbor; our country is still more the neighbor; the Lord's kingdom still more; and the Lord above all; and in a universal sense, good, which proceeds from the Lord, is the neighbor; consequently also sincerity and justice. Wherefore he who does any good for the sake of good, and he who acts sincerely and justly for the sake of sincerity and justice, loves the neighbor and exercises charity; for he does so from the love of what is good, sincere, and just, and consequently from the love of those in whom good, sincerity, and justice are.

103. 这样的事情属于爱邻人或仁爱的原因是,正如以上所说,每个人是邻人,但是类型不同。较小或较大的社会是等级较高的邻人;我们的国家是等级较高的邻人;主的国度是等级较高的邻人;而主是超越一切的。普遍意义上,来自主的良善是邻人。所以真诚和正义也一样。因此,为了良善而行出任何良善的人,为了真诚而行为真诚和公正的人,他爱邻人并且实行仁爱。因为他这样做是源于爱良善、真诚和公正,因此源于对良善、真诚和公正的那些人的爱。

104. Charity therefore is an internal affection, from which man wills to do good, and this without remuneration; the delight of his life consists in doing it. With them who do good from internal affection, there is charity in each thing which they think and speak, and which they will and do; it may be said that a man and an angel, as to his interiors, is charity, when good is his neighbor. So widely does charity extend itself.

104. 仁爱因此是一种内部情感,通过它,人愿意行善,并且不求回报。他生命的快乐在于行善。由内部情感去行善的人,他们思考和言说的每件事情里都有仁爱,他们的意志和行动也是。当良善是他的邻人时,可以说一个人和一个天人的内部是仁爱的。仁爱扩展它自己的范围是多么广。

105. They who have the love of self and of the world for an end, cannot in any wise be in charity; they do not even know what charity is; and they cannot at all comprehend that to will and do good to the neighbor without reward as an end, is heaven in man, and that there is in that affection a happiness as great as that of the angels of heaven, which is ineffable; for they believe, if they are deprived of the joy from the glory of honors and riches, that nothing of joy can be given them any longer; when yet it is then that heavenly joy first begins, which infinitely transcends the other.

105. 以爱自己和爱世界为目标的人,他们对仁爱没有任何智慧。他们甚至不知道仁爱是什么。他们完全不能理解把对邻人意愿和实行良善作为目标让人心中有天堂,并且在那种情感里有和天堂天人一样强烈的幸福,它是不可言喻的。因为他们相信,如果他们通过荣誉和财富的光荣获得快乐,没可能有长久的快乐。然而,当天堂快乐首先出现时,这种快乐无限超过其它。

FROM THE ARCANA COELESTIA.

摘自《天堂的奥秘》

106. Heaven is distinguished into two kingdoms, one of which is called the celestial kingdom, and the other the spiritual kingdom; the love in the celestial kingdom is love to the Lord, and is called celestial love; and the love in the spiritual kingdom is love towards the neighbor, or charity, and is called spiritual love (n. 3325, 3653, 7257, 9002, 9835, 9961). Heaven is distinguished into two kingdoms, see the work on Heaven and Hell (n. 20-28); and the Divine of the Lord in the heavens is love to Him, and charity towards the neighbor (n. 13-19, in the same).

106. 天堂分为两个国度,一个被称为属天国度,另一个被称为属灵国度。属天国度的爱是爱主,被称为属天的爱;属灵国度的爱是爱邻人,或仁爱,被称为属灵的爱(n. 332536537257900298359961)。天堂分为两个国度,参见《天堂和地狱》(n. 20-28)。在天堂里,主的神性是爱祂和仁爱地对待邻人(n. 13-19, 同样)

It cannot be known what good is and what truth is, unless it be known what love to the Lord and love towards the neighbor are, because all good is of love, and all truth is of good (n. 72557366). To know truths, to will truths, and to be affected with them for the sake of truths, that is, because they are truths, is charity (n. 38763877). Charity consists in an internal affection of doing truth, and not in an external affection without an internal one (n. 242924423776489949568033). Thus charity consists in performing uses for the sake of uses (n. 7038, 8253). Charity is the spiritual life of man (n. 7081). The whole Word is the doctrine of love and charity (n. 66327262). It is not known at this day what charity is (n. 2417339847766632). Nevertheless man may know from the light of his own reason, that love and charity make the man (n. 39576273). Also that good and truth agree together, and that one is of the other, and so also love and faith (n. 7627).

我们不能知道良善和真理是什么,除非知道爱主和爱邻人是什么,因为一切良善是来自爱,一切真理是来自良善(n. 72557366)。认识真理,意愿于真理,为了真理而被真理影响,就是仁爱,因为它们是真理 (n. 38763877)。仁爱存在于执行真理的内层感情,不在于没有内部的外部感情(n. 242924423776489949568033)。因此仁爱在于为了功用执行功用(n. 7038, 8253)。仁爱是人的灵性生命(n. 7081)。整本圣言是爱和仁爱的教义(n. 66327262)。现在,没有人知道仁爱是什么(n. 2417339847766632)。然而,一个人通过他自己的理性之光可以知道,爱和仁爱构成人(n. 39576273)。此外,良善和真理共同同意一个属于另一个,因此爱和信仰也一样(n. 7627)

The Lord is the neighbor in the highest sense, because He is to be loved above all things; and hence all is the neighbor which is from Him, and in which he is, thus good and truth (n. 242534196706681968238124). The distinction of neighbor is according to the quality of good, thus according to the presence of the Lord (n. 6707-6710). Every Man and every society, also our country and the church, and, in the universal sense, the kingdom of the Lord, are the neighbor, and to do good to them according to the quality of their state from the love of good, is to love the neighbor; thus the neighbor is their good, which is to be consulted (n. 6818-68248123).

在最高观念上,主是邻人,因为他是最应该被爱的。因此来自祂的、祂存在其中的一切都是邻人,因此是良善和真理 (n. 242534196706681968238124)。区分邻人是根据良善的性质,因此根据的是主的临在(n. 6707-6710)。每个人和每个社会,以及我们的国家和教会,普遍意义的主的国度,都是邻人,根据邻人状态的性质,由爱的良善对他们行善,这就是爱邻人。因此邻人是他们的良善,可以参考(n. 6818-68248123)

Civil good, which is justice, and moral good, which is the good of life in society, and is called sincerity, are also the neighbor (n. 291547308120-8122). To love the neighbor does not consist in loving his person, but in loving that with him from which he is, consequently good and truth (n. 502810336). They who love the person, and not that which is with him from which he is, love evil as well as good (n. 3820). And they do good to the evil as well as to the good, when nevertheless doing good to the evil is doing evil to the good, which is not loving the neighbor (n. 382067038120). The judge who punishes the evil that they may be amended, and that the good may not be contaminated by them, loves the neighbor (n. 382081208121).

公民良善,即正义和道德良善,也就是社会里的良善生活,它被称为真诚,也是邻人(n. 291547308120-8122)。爱邻人不在于爱他本人,而是存在于爱中,此爱来自他并与他相伴,因此是在良善和真理中(n. 502810336)。爱本人的人,不爱视他为邻人并与他相伴的人,他爱邪恶就像爱良善(n. 3820)。他们对邪恶的人行善与对良善的人行善是一样的,然而,对邪恶的人行善就是对良善的人行恶,这样不是爱邻人(n. 382067038120)。一个法官惩罚邪恶之人,他们能够被改好,良善能够不被污染,这个法官爱邻人(n. 382081208121)

To love the neighbor is to do what is good, just, and right, in every work and in every office (n.8120-8122). Hence charity towards the neighbor extends itself to each and every thing which man thinks, wills, and does (n. 8124). To do what is good and true is to love the neighbor (n. 1031010336). They who do this love the Lord, who in the highest sense is the neighbor (n. 9210). The life of charity is a life according to the commandments of the Lord; and to live according to Divine truths is to love the Lord (n. 1014310153103101057810645).

爱邻人是行善,就是在每个工作和每个职责中做正确的事情(n.8120-8122)。因此仁爱对待邻人扩展它自己至人思考、意愿和行动的每个和一切事物(n. 8124)。做良善和正确的事情就是爱邻人(n. 1031010336)。这样做的人爱主,在最高观念上,主是邻人(n. 9210)。仁爱的生活是一种遵守主的诫命的生活。根据神性真理生活就是爱主(n. 1014310153103101057810645)

Genuine charity is not meritorious (n.2027, 2343, 2400, 3887, 6388-6393). Because it is from internal affection, consequently from the delight of the life of doing good (n. 2373240038876388-6393). They who separate faith from charity, in another life hold faith and the good works which they have done in the external form as meritorious (n. 2373). They who are in evils from the love of self or the love of the world, do not know what it is to do good without remuneration, thus what that charity is which is not meritorious (n.8037).

真正的仁爱是不值得称赞的(n.2027, 2343, 2400, 3887, 6388-6393)。因为它来自内部感情,因此来自行善生活的快乐(n. 2373240038876388-6393)。把信仰与仁爱分离的人在来世认为信仰和表面形式的行善是值得称赞的(n. 2373)。因为爱自己和爱世界而在邪恶之中的人,不知道不求回报地行善是什么,因此不知道不值得称赞的仁爱是什么(n.8037)

The doctrine of the Ancient Church was the doctrine of life, which is the doctrine of charity (n. 2385, 2417, 3419, 3420, 4844, 6628). Thence they had intelligence and wisdom (n. 241766297259-7262). Intelligence and wisdom increase immensely in the other life with those who have lived a life of charity in the world (n. 19415859). The Lord flows in with Divine truth into charity, because into the essential life of man (n. 2063). The man with whom charity and faith are conjoined is like a garden; but like a desert with whom they are not conjoined (n.7626). Man recedes from wisdom in proportion as he recedes from charity; and they who are not in charity, are in ignorance concerning Divine truths, however wise they think themselves (n. 24172435). The angelic life consists in performing the goods of charity, which are uses (n. 454). The spiritual angels, who are they that are in the good of charity, are forms of charity (n. 55338044735).

古教会的教义是生活的教义,也是仁爱的教义(n. 238524173419342048446628)。因此他们具有才智和智慧(n. 241766297259-7262)。在人间过着仁爱生活的人在来世才智和智慧会极大地增加(n. 19415859)。主和神性真理一起流入仁爱,因为是流入人的生命本质之中(n. 2063)。仁爱和信仰结合的人就像是一个花园;但是没有结合的人就像是一个沙漠(n.7626)。人退去智慧依照的是他退去仁爱的比例。没有仁爱的人对神性真理是无知的,无论他们自己思考时是多么明智(n. 24172435)。天人的生活在于实行仁爱的良善,也就是功用(n. 454)。具有仁爱良善的灵性天人是仁爱的形式(n. 55338044735)

All spiritual truths regard charity as their beginning and end (n. 4353). The doctrinals of the church effect nothing unless they regard charity as their end (n. 2049, 2116).

从头到尾,关于仁爱的一切灵性真理(n. 4353)。除非他们视仁爱为他们的目标,否则教会的教义不起作用(n. 2049, 2116)

The presence of the Lord with men and angels is according to their state of love and charity (n. 549, 904). Charity is the image of God (n. 1013). Love to the Lord, consequently the Lord, is within charity, although man does not know it (n. 222750665067). They who live a life of charity are accepted as citizens both in the world and in heaven (n. 1121). The good of charity is not to be violated (n. 2359).

主与人和天人的同在是根据他们的爱和仁爱的状态(n. 549, 904)。仁爱是主的形象(n. 1013)。爱主,所以主在他的仁爱之中,尽管人不知道(n. 222750665067)。过着仁爱生活的人,无论在人间还是天堂都被接纳为居民(n. 1121)。仁爱的良善是不能被违背的(n. 2359)

They who are not in charity cannot acknowledge and worship the Lord except from hypocrisy (n. 213244249833). The forms of hatred and of charity cannot exist together(n.1860).

没有仁爱的人不能认识和敬拜主,除非是假装的(n. 213244249833)。憎恨和仁爱的活动形式不能同在(n.1860)

107. To the above shall be added some particulars concerning the doctrine of love to the Lord, and the doctrine of charity, as it was held by the ancients with whom the church was, in order that the former quality of that doctrine, which at this day exists no longer, may be known. The particulars are extracted from the Arcana Coelestia (n. 7257-7263).

107. 以上内容应该增加一些关于爱主和仁爱教义的细节,它们被有教会相伴的古人所掌握,这是为了让今日不再存在的那教义的从前的性质可以得知。详情摘自《天堂的奥秘》(n. 7257-7263)

The good which is of love to the Lord, is called celestial good; and the good which is of love towards the neighbor, or charity, is called spiritual good. The angels who are in the inmost or third heaven, are in the good of love to the Lord, being called celestial angels; but the angels of the middle or second heaven, are in the good of love towards the neighbor, being called spiritual angels.

爱主的良善被称为属天良善;爱邻人的良善,或者仁爱,被称为属灵良善。最内层或第三层天堂的天人有爱主的良善,他们被称为属天天人;然而中间层或第二层天堂的天人具有爱邻人的良善,他们被称为属灵天人。

The doctrine of celestial good, which is that of love to the Lord, is of most wide extent, and at the same time most full of arcana; being the doctrine of the angels of the inmost or third heaven, which is such, that if it were delivered from their mouths, scarcely a thousandth part of it would be understood: the things also which it contains are ineffable. This doctrine is contained in the inmost sense of the Word; but the doctrine of spiritual love, in the internal sense.

爱主的属天良善的教义是范围最广的,同时充满最多奥秘。最内层或第三层天堂的天人的教义是这样的:如果他们说出它,将被理解的部分几乎不到它的千分之一:它包含的事物也是不可言喻的。这教义被容纳在圣言的最深层意义中。然而灵性之爱的教义是内层意义。

The doctrine of spiritual good, which is that of love towards the neighbor, is also of wide extent and full of arcana, but much less so than the doctrine of celestial good, which is that of love to the Lord. That the doctrine of love towards the neighbor, or charity, is of wide extent, may appear from the fact, that it reaches to all the things which man thinks and wills, consequently to all which he speaks and does, even to the most minute particulars; and also from the fact, that charity does not exist alike with two different persons, and that no two persons are alike the neighbor.

属灵良善的教义是爱邻人,它也有广阔范围并充满奥秘,但是不及属天良善的教义,它是来自爱主。爱邻人的教义,或者仁爱,是有广泛的范围,从事实可以看到,它延伸至人思考和意愿的一切事物,因此延伸至他言说和行动的一切,甚至是最细微的细节。以下也是来自事实,两个不同的人的仁爱是不同的,没有两个人是相同的邻人。

As the doctrine of charity was so extensive, therefore the ancients, with whom it was the very doctrine of the church, distinguished charity towards the neighbor into several classes, which they again subdivided, and gave names to each class, and taught how charity was to be exercised towards those who are in one class, and towards those who are in another; and thus they reduced the doctrine and the exercises of charity into order, that they might fall distinctly into the understanding.

由于仁爱的教义是如此宽泛,它正好是与古人相伴的教会的教义,因而古人把对邻人的仁爱分为很多等级,再对之细分,并给予每个等级名字,教导如何对一个等级的那些人实行仁爱,以及如何对另一个等级的那些人实行仁爱。因此,他们减少仁爱的教义和依规则实行仁爱的行动,以便他们可以清楚地进入认知中。

The names which they gave to those towards whom they were to exercise charity were many; some they called "the blind," some "the lame," some "the maimed," some "the poor," some "the miserable," and "afflicted," some "the fatherless," some "widows," but in general they called them "the hungry," to whom they should give to eat; "the thirsty," to whom they should give to drink; "strangers," whom they should take in; "the naked," whom they should clothe; "the sick," whom they should visit, and "the bound in prison," to whom they should come.

他们为被施予仁爱的那些人取了很多名字。他们称一些人为“盲人”、一些为“跛足者”、一些为“受伤者”、一些为“穷人”、一些为“悲惨者”、“受苦者”,一些为“无父者”、一些为“寡妇”,但是总的来说,他们称其为他们应该给予食物的“饥饿者”;他们应该给予水的“干渴者”;他们应该接纳的“陌生人”;他们应该给予衣服的“赤贫者”;他们应该探望的“病患”,他们应该探访的“狱中人”。

Who they were whom they meant by these particulars, has been made known already in the Arcana Coelestia, as whom they meant by "the blind" (n. 23836990); by "the lame" (n. 4302); "the poor" (n. 2129445949589209925310227); "the miserable" (n.2129); "the afflicted" (n. 666368519196); "the fatherless" (n. 48449198-9200) and "widows" (n. 484491989200); "the hungry" (n. 495810227); "the thirsty" (n.49588568); "the strangers" (n. 444479088007801391969200); "the naked" (n. 107354339960); "the sick" (n. 4958622183649031); "the bound in prison" (n. 5037503850865096). It may be seen that the whole doctrine of charity is comprehended in the offices towards those who are called by the Lord "the hungry," "the thirsty," "strangers," "the naked," "the sick," and "the bound in prison" Matt. 25:34-36 and the verses following) [n. 4954-4959].

通过这些特例意指的人在《天堂的奥秘》中已说明,他们意指像这样的人为“盲人”(n. 23836990)跛足者”(n. 4302)穷人”(n. 2129445949589209925310227)悲惨者”(n.2129)受苦者”(n. 666368519196)无父者”(n. 48449198-9200)寡妇”(n. 484491989200)饥饿者”(n. 495810227)干渴者”(n.49588568)陌生人”(n. 444479088007801391969200)赤贫者”(n. 107354339960)病患”(n. 4958622183649031)狱中人” (n. 5037503850865096)。可以看到,仁爱的全部教义被负责地包含于被主称为饥饿者干渴者陌生人赤贫者病患狱中人的那些人。马太福音:2534-36,及其后的诗篇[n. 4954-4959]

These names were given from heaven to the ancients who were of the church, and by those who were so named they understood those who were spiritually such. Their doctrine of charity not only taught who these were, but also the quality of the charity to be exercised towards each. Hence it is, that the same names are in the Word, and signify those who are such in the spiritual sense. The Word in itself is nothing but the doctrine of love to the Lord, and of charity towards the neighbor, as the Lord also teaches:

Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind; this is the first and great commandment. The second is like unto it, Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself. On these two commandments hang all the law and the prophets (Matt. 22:37-40).

这些名字由天堂给予属于教会的古人,通过这样命名的人,他们得知灵性是如此性质的那些人。他们的仁爱教义不仅教导这些人是谁,还教导彼此施予的仁爱的性质。因此,圣言里有相同的名字,意指灵性意思上如此的那些人。圣言本身除了是爱主和仁爱对待邻人的教义,什么也不是,正如主的教导:

你要尽心、尽性、尽意,爱主你的 神。这是诫命中的第一,且是最大的。其次也相仿,就是要爱人如己。这两条诫命是律法和先知一切道理的总纲。(马太福音2237-40)。

 "The law and the prophets" are the whole Word (n. 2606338267527643).

“律法和先知”意指整本圣言(n. 2606338267527643)

The reason why those same names are in the Word, is that the Word, which is in itself spiritual, might in its ultimate be natural; and because they who are in external worship are to exercise charity towards such as are so named, and they who are in internal worship towards such spiritually understood; thus that the simple might understand and do the Word in simplicity, and the wise, in wisdom; also, that the simple, by the externals of charity, might be initiated into its internals.

圣言中有那些相似名字是因为圣言在它自身里面是灵性的,它的终极是自然的。因为外部敬拜的人是向这样命名的人实行仁爱,内部敬拜的人是向被灵性理解的那些人实行仁爱。因此简单的人能简单地理解并实践圣言,在智慧之中明智者也是这样简单,通过外部仁爱被引入它的内层事物。

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